Gold News

Gold & the end of history

The end of history never came in the '90s, and the death of gold has failed to hit this decade, too...

WHAT YOU THINK depends on where you sit. And in early 2000, the Oxford historian Niall Ferguson – like pretty much everyone else who pulled up a chair to watch – sat two decades into the final death-throes of gold as a valuable asset.

   Professor Ferguson wasn't to know, of course, that the 20-year bear market in Gold Prices was about to hit rock-bottom. Nor could he be sure that his own TV and book-signing career was about to take off as well, bringing him tenure at both Harvard University and the Harvard Business School, plus a weekly column in the Los Angeles Times.

  
But in studying 300 years of "money and power in the modern world" as he subtitled his 2001 book, The Cash Nexus, he might have at least wondered whether tomorrow would bring something different for gold from today.

  
The lesson of history, after all, is that nothing lasts forever...nothing, perhaps, except gold itself. Least reactive of all metals, and impossible to destroy with anything other than cyanide to dissolve it, gold had been used as a store of wealth across the world for more than 3,500 years. By the end of the 20th century, however, the more recent past read like an obituary for the "barbarous relic" of ancient kings.

  
Hence the "Death of Gold" proclaimed by a Financial Times' editorial in 1997, together with The Economist's seemingly annual rant against gold throughout that decade. Come October 1999, and BusinessWeek told its readers that "this ancient form of wealth is less an international currency and stable store of value than ever before.

  
"It's just another commodity that swings to the global rhythm of supply and demand."

   In short, "the twilight of gold appeared to have arrived," agreed Professor Ferguson, stepping out of the lecture hall and into his gypsy fortune-teller's circus tent. "True, total blackout is still some way off," he forecast in The Cash Nexus, and "gold has a future, of course, but mainly as jewellery."

   All the evidence he gathered together at the turn of this century pointed to "the creeping demonetization" of gold. First, the international Gold Standard had collapsed at the start of World War One, after dominating global finance for barely 13 years. The Gold Exchange system of world currencies that followed it seemed only to spread and deepen the Great Depression. In turn it collapsed, too, on the eve of World War II.

   The United States then ceased paying gold in exchange for US Dollars in 1971, finally destroying the post-war Bretton Woods settlement and severing all links between the world's most important currency and the "barbarous relic" of gold.

   Funnily enough, the end of gold's convertibility into Dollars sparked a 24-fold spike in Dollar Gold Prices by the start of 1980. But "the surge in Gold Prices that occurred during the 1970s was historically anomalous," said Ferguson as the 20th century drew to a close, "reflecting a sudden increase in demand for gold...and the rapid depreciation of most Western currencies relative to oil and other commodities."

   The "historical anomaly" of $850 gold lasted just one day, in fact – 21st Jan. 1980 – and from then on, gold's role as a monetary asset sank almost as fast as its price. By the end of 1999, the Gold Price was languishing at a 20-year low. Then the British government, founder and guardian of the international Gold Standard a century before, picked its moment to sell half of its national gold reserves, swapping the metal for Dollars, Euros and Yen to keep in the Bank of England's vaults.

   At the very same time, the Swiss National Bank – last of the world's central banks to abandon the Gold Standard in the 1930s – sold half of its gold reserves, too. The sale required a change to the Swiss constitution, and that required a national referendum of the Swiss people, plus a re-writing of Switzerland's currency statutes! But the central banks of Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic and India were already selling gold by this point.

   So what had the Swiss people to fear? What comfort were they hoping to take from gold bullion anyway? The changes were ratified...the legal link between gold and the Swiss Franc was severed at last...and so the SNB began the sale of 1,300 tonnes of gold in a five-year program.

   "From the point of view of investors in the West, where the possibility (or at least the memory) of financial catastrophe has receded, the twilight of gold makes some sense," Ferguson went on. "As an investment, gold has signally under-performed stocks and government bonds in the United States and Britain in the past century."

   Surveying the world from the dreaming spires of Oxford, however, "gold also has a future as a store of value in parts of the world with primitive or unstable monetary and financial systems," forecast the don.

   "Gold will [also] continue to have an appeal as a store of value anywhere where currencies or banking systems are fragile," he added, pointing to "the countries of the former Soviet Union."

   But given what's happened to the world's Gold Market since then, however, might Professor Ferguson now want to review his opinion of Western currencies and banking systems? Seeing the recent run on Northern Rock in Great Britain – and the near-run on Countrywide Bank in California, an event which Ferguson himself reported in a recent column for the L.A. Times – might Western governments also want to reconsider their disdain for gold, that barbarous relic of less enlightened times?

   Fast forward to late 2007, and gold is now approaching its seventh annual gain on the trot. Rising by nearly a quarter against the Dollar over the last 12 months – and rising by 10% and more against both the Euro and British Pound – the "anomaly" of surging Gold Prices in the 1970s has made a comeback.

   Put another way, the Western world enjoyed a "Long Boom" from 1982 to 2000. It was announced by yet another extrapolation of the present far into the future in a book of that name by Peter Schwartz and Peter Leyden published in 1997 (and it seems to have petered out before their 2020 deadline). At its peak, this boom discounted tech-stock earnings until A.D. 2146 on the Nasdaq index, but it failed to abolish the threat of financial instability in Europe and the United States.

   At least, that's what the Gold Market has been saying since its current surge got underway. Gold's resurgence really picked up speed in mid-2005...just as the US housing bubble was nearing its top.

   And just as the famous "End of History" proclaimed by Francis Fukuyama in 1989 proved to be merely a weekend vacation during the mid-to-late 1990s, so the "Death of Gold" announced by historians, pundits and analysts at the very same time has proved somewhat premature.

Full Disclosure: Of course, investors joining this bull market now should beware of repeating their error. Sitting here at BullionVault might just color our view a little, too!

   But if deciding to Buy Gold feels at all hard today, it might suggest the top of this market remains a long way off yet. And for as long as Bloomberg columnists argue that buying gold is like "believing in the tooth fairy", as Michael Sesit did this week, you might also take comfort in the fact that mainstream consensus is still opposed to gold.

   Just like it was at the turn of this century.

Adrian Ash is director of research at BullionVault, the world-leading physical gold, silver and platinum market for private investors online. Formerly head of editorial at London's top publisher of private-investment advice, he was City correspondent for The Daily Reckoning from 2003 to 2008, and he has now been researching and writing daily analysis of precious metals and the wider financial markets for over 20 years. A frequent guest on BBC radio and television, Adrian is regularly quoted by the Financial Times, MarketWatch and many other respected news outlets, and his views from inside the bullion market have been sought by the Economist magazine, CNBC, Bloomberg, Germany's Handelsblatt and FAZ, plus Italy's Il Sole 24 Ore.

See the full archive of Adrian Ash articles on GoldNews.

Please Note: All articles published here are to inform your thinking, not lead it. Only you can decide the best place for your money, and any decision you make will put your money at risk. Information or data included here may have already been overtaken by events – and must be verified elsewhere – should you choose to act on it. Please review our Terms & Conditions for accessing Gold News.

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